朱子晚年“木晦于根,春容晔敷”的精神旨趣
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引用本文:张 昭 炜.朱子晚年“木晦于根,春容晔敷”的精神旨趣[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2018,(6):26-31
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张 昭 炜 (武汉大学 中国传统文化研究中心湖北 武汉 430072) 
中文摘要:朱熹字“元晦”,号“晦庵”,“晦”平衡“熹”,“晦”之意如启蒙老师刘子翚祝词:“木晦于根,春容晔敷;人晦于身,神明内腴”,这影响了朱子一生的审美趣味与精神旨趣。朱子主静的思想资源丰富,如道南指诀的观未发之中、周敦颐《太极图说》的无欲主静、《易传》的寂然不动等。朱子晚年对道教丹道经典《周易参同契》颇用功,著有《周易参同契考异》,深受其中主静功夫的影响,如朱子视“三光陆沉,温养子珠”为其中之“要切之要切者”,效验是“黄中渐通理,润泽达肌肤”;在晚年的《楚辞集注》中,朱子通过屈原的《远游》来寄托超脱的情怀,以“壹气”为要诀之要诀,涵盖“毋滑魂”“与泰初而为邻”。另外,主静还表现为专一的持守,如《调息箴》中所言守鼻端之白,由此而至“静极而嘘,如春沼鱼”。诸多主静思想资源汇聚于朱子,他既能入之深,又能转得出,以持敬平衡主静。
中文关键词:朱熹  《周易参同契考异》  《楚辞集注》  缄默维度
 
ZHU Xi’s Innate Spirit Pursuit of the Late Years: “The Deeper Darkness of the Root, The Brighter and More Vital Force of the Tree.”
Abstract:Xi in ZHU Xi’s name means brightness, balanced by Hui (darkness) of his courtesy name. LIU Zi-hui, ZHU Xi’s abecedarian teacher, ever blessed ZHU-Xi, “The deeper the tree rooted in earth, the more luxuriantly its branches will flourish in spring; the more introverted and cautious a man is, the more mind-refreshed and strong-hearted he will be.” This teaching influenced ZHU Xi’s lifetime aesthetic taste and spiritual pursuit. ZHU Xi had abundant resources of quiet-sitting, such as searching the unaroused equilibrium of Dao-nan’s tradition, eliminating desire and regarding tranquility as fundamental of the Diagram of the Great Ultimate of Zhou Dunyi, absolute quietness and inactivity of Commentaries of the Book of Changes. ZHU Xi was immersed in The Kinship of the Three, a classic of inner and outer elixir of Taoism, and he wrote Collate Variants in Textual Research of the Kinship of the Three. ZHU Xi thought that the thrust of the book lies in “Putting down lights of sun, moon, and star underneath, and nourishing the jewel of the son of mind.” After practicing the thrust, one can establish etiquetts by nourishing yellow central, and glossy penetrating through skin. In his late years, ZHU Xi also found sustenance in the Yuan-You (Traveling Faraway), a chapter of The Songs of Chu. ZHU Xi regarded the unity of material force as the gist of the chapter, which extends to mean not disturbing the soul and approaching the primitive material force. In addition, quiet-sitting also appears as concentrating on one thing, such as the white point of nasal tip, and it can touch the impulse of spring. ZHU Xi synthesized those quiet-sitting resources, practicing and exceeding them, and balanced quiet-sitting by holding fast to attentiveness.
keywords:ZHU Xi  Collate Variants in Textual Research of the Kinship of the Three  Comprehensive Commentary of the Songs of Chu  Tacit Dimension
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