西周青铜铭文射礼研究
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引用本文:连 秀 丽.西周青铜铭文射礼研究[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2019,(6):113-118
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作者单位
连 秀 丽 (哈尔滨师范大学 《北方论丛》编辑部黑龙江 哈尔滨 150025) 
中文摘要:射礼是西周礼制的重要组成部分。五礼中属于嘉礼。射由技术到礼制的发展过程,实质上是射由实用性演变为政治性的历史过程。《三礼》中关于射礼的记载很多。西周时期青铜铭文所记射礼,有大射礼、宾射礼和燕射礼;有射礼进行比赛和教化的专门场所——射宫;足见射礼在西周社会的重要政治地位。西周射礼与《仪礼·大射仪》在参射人员的等级上、具体注重的射事内容和射礼的作用功能等方面有明显的差异;从西周早期的大射礼、宾射礼向晚期燕射礼的转变,从青铜铭文中的射礼注重“礼”到《仪礼·大射仪》注重“仪”的转变,暗涵着西周礼制的逐渐松弛、礼乐文化下移的历史趋势。
中文关键词:青铜铭文  西周射礼  《仪礼》射礼  礼乐下移
 
On the Ritual of Archery in the Bronze Inscriptions of the Western Zhou Dynasty
Abstract:Sheli (ritual of archery), one of five kinds of traditional Chinese etiquettes (Ji, Xiong, Jun, Bin, Jia), is an important part of the ritual system in the Western Zhou Dynasty it belongs to Jiali. The development of archery from technology to ritual is essentially a historical process of archery with the transformation from practicality to politics. There were many recordings about the ceremonies in Three Li (three earliest famous classics on ancient rituals in China, and also a model for future generations in rituals). The bronze inscriptions in the Western Zhou Dynasty recorded the ceremonies of archery, which shows the important political status of the ceremony of archery in the Western Zhou Dynasty. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, the ritual of archery could be divided into three different types according to the participants and the occasions, respectively called Dasheli, Binsheli, and Yansheli. The special place for people to practice archery and compete with each other was called Shegong (Palace for Shooting). There were obvious differences in the class of participants, the focused contents of the shooting and the specific functions of the shooting ceremony between the ritual of archery in the Western Zhou Dynasty and Yili Dasheyi (a famous classic on ancient rituals and ceremonies). The transformation from Dasheli, Binsheli in the early Western Zhou Dynasty to Yansheli in the later period of Western Zhou Dynasty, and the transformation from the focused Li (ritual) in bronze inscriptions to the focused Yi (ceremony) in the classic Yili Dasheyi implied the historical trends: the ritual system of the Western Zhou Dynasty was gradually slacking and the cultures of ritual and music were also declining.
keywords:bronze inscription  Sheli in the Western Zhou Dynasty  Sheli in Yili  decline of ritual and music
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