从《四因说演讲录》和《圆善论》论牟宗三的道家诠释
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引用本文:(中国台湾)杜保瑞.从《四因说演讲录》和《圆善论》论牟宗三的道家诠释[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2020,(3):18-28
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作者单位
(中国台湾)杜保瑞 (上海交通大学 哲学系上海 200240) 
中文摘要:牟宗三在《四因说演讲录》一书中,以亚里士多德四因说的哲学理论,来讨论中国的道家哲学,他牵强地认定,中国的道家是没有实体创生的意旨的,道家的道,是一个非实有以及非必然的理论模型。他还认为,老子的“无”概念,虽然有动力因的意思,但却只是一个作用的姿态,因此并没有真正的形上学意义的创造性,只是一套境界型态的形上学,而不是一套实有型态的形上学。其实,牟先生是把道家的工夫论命题,当作了形上学的命题在解读,因此导致了错解。在《圆善论》中,牟先生又借由郭象的“迹本圆融”之说,来诠释庄子书中的儒家圣王帝尧的形象,这种做法,从儒家立场来说是可以的,但却是违反道家庄子立场的。牟先生只是借非儒非道之郭象哲学,来建立儒家的哲学,并且曲解又贬抑道家哲学。
中文关键词:牟宗三  郭象  道家  庄子  老子  《圆善论》  《四因说演讲录》
 
On the Taoist interpretation of Mr. Mou Zongsan from the book of The Four Causes Theory
Abstract:Mou Zongsan discusses Chinese Taoist philosophy based on Aristotle's theory of the four causes theory in his book The Four Causes Theory Lecture. He firmly believes that there is no intention of substancial creation in Chinese Taoism. He says that Chinese Taoism is a theoretical model that is non-reality and not a necessity. The point is that Laozi's concept of "nothing/Wu/无", although it has the meaning of motive cause, is only a gesture of action. Therefore, there is no real creation of metaphysical meaning, and it is just a “vision-form” metaphysics, rather than a “being-form” metaphysics. In fact, Mou Zongsan interpreted the Taoist practical thesis as a metaphysical thesis, which resulted in the wrong solution. In the book The Perfection of Goodness, Mr. Mou interprets the image of Emperor Yao, the holy king of Confucianism, in Zhuangzi's book by Guo Xiang's theory of "harmony in appearance and nature". It is possible to do so from the standpoint of Confucianism, but it is contrary to that of Taoist Zhuangzi. Therefore, Mr. Mou through neither Confucianism nor Taoism Guo Xiang philosophy, established Confucian philosophy he misinterpreted and suppressed Taoist philosophy.
keywords:Mou Zong-san  Guo Xiang  Taoist  Zhuangzi  Lao-tzu  The Four Causes Theory Lecture  The Perfection of Goodness
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