谭 嗣 同 的 名 实 观 辨 正
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引用本文:王向清,贾晓琼.谭 嗣 同 的 名 实 观 辨 正[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2020,(4):34-38
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作者单位
王向清,贾晓琼 (湘潭大学 哲学系,湖南 湘潭 411105) 
中文摘要:谭嗣同提出名实观是为了突破过时的纲常名教对体现资本主义文化的名词、概念的禁锢。他的名实观体现在:名词仅仅是人们对对象的随意命名、名词没有对应的实体。这种名实观没有搞清语词之名和概念之名的区别,基本上是错误的。为摆脱旧名对发展变化了的现实的钳制,他提出了“破对待”的相对主义正名方法,并从三个方面予以论证:事物运动的绝对性、事物大小的相对性、事物性质的相对性。谭嗣同相对主义“破对待”的正名方法是错误的,正确的正名方法是“变名符实”。谭嗣同名实观的现实启示:一是变名符实,促使过时的旧观念改变以适应发展变化的现实;二是充实符名,将现实中扩充了的内涵对应的对象加入概念的外延中,使之名副其实;三是循名责实,通过实践创造出与新概念内涵相符合的物化对象。
中文关键词:谭嗣同  名实观  正名  破对待  变名符实
 
Tan Si-tong’s Views of Changing Name to Correspond to Reality
Abstract:Tan Si-tong raised his view of name and reality, the purpose and the background of which are concerned with breakthrough of the imprisonment of outdated Confucian ethical code to the noun and concept standing for capitalist culture; his view of name and reality is illustrated as follows: nouns are just people’s random naming and nouns don’t correspond to some entities; this opinion on name and reality hasn’t made distinctions between names of phrases and names of concepts,which is basically wrong. In order to get rid of the old name's restriction on the changed and developed reality, he put forward the relativism method of correcting names, that is,  breaking opposition,  and demonstrated it from three aspects: the absoluteness of the movement of things, the relativity of the size of things, the relativity of the nature of things; Tan Si-tong's relativism method of correcting names, breaking opposition,  is wrong, and the right correcting method is  changing names to correspond to reality.  Tan Si-tong's view of name and reality has two practical enlightenments: first, changing the names to correspond to the reality, to promote the change of the outdated old ideas to adapt to the changed and developed reality; second, enriching the names of symbols, the objects corresponding to the expanded connotation in reality will be added to the extension of concepts so as to make the name accord with the reality; third, creating the reality that will fit the name, creating materialized objects that conform to the connotation of the new concepts through practice.
keywords:Tan Si-tong  view of name and reality  the relativism method of correcting names  breaking opposition  changing names to correspond to reality
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