康德伦理学中的“神圣存在者”
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引用本文:舒远招,韩广平.康德伦理学中的“神圣存在者”[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2020,(4):107-114
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舒远招,韩广平 (湖南大学 岳麓书院,湖南 长沙 410082) 
中文摘要:“神圣存在者”是康德伦理学中的一个重要概念。通过对康德伦理学论著的梳理,本文发现它包含“神圣立法者”和“神圣守法者”双重含义:从立法角度看,所有有理性的存在者都凭借其立法能力(立法理性)是神圣的,人作为有理性的存在者也是其中之一;从守法角度看,只有天使和上帝这类存在者才是神圣存在者,它们具有完善意志,能够心甘情愿地遵守道德法则,而像人这类有限的理性存在者并不具有完善意志,不能心甘情愿地遵守道德法则,因而不是神圣存在者。这两个含义不宜混淆。《道德形而上学》德性论导论中的endliche heilige Wesen是第二个含义的神圣存在者,只能理解为“终极的神圣存在者”,而不能理解为“有限的神圣存在者”,后一种理解会导致自相矛盾。
中文关键词:康德伦理学  神圣存在者  神圣立法者  终极神圣存在者
 
Holy Beings  in Kant’s Ethics
Abstract:Holy beings  is an important concept in Kant’s ethics. Through a systematic review of Kant’s ethics works, we can find that it contains the double meanings of  holy legislator  and  holy law-abiding beings ; from the perspective of legislation, all rational beings are holy by virtue of their legislative ability (legislative reason), and human beings as rational beings are one of them; from the law-abiding point of view, only angels and gods are holy beings, who have perfect will and are willing to comply with moral law, while such finite rational beings as human beings do not have perfect will and cannot willingly comply with moral law, so they are not holy beings. The two meanings should not be confused. Endliche heilige Wesen in the introduction to the Doctrine of Virtue in the  Metaphysics of Morals  is the holy beings in the second meaning, which can only be understood as  ultimate holy beings , but not as  finite rational beings , the latter understanding will lead to self-contradiction.
keywords:Kant’s ethics  holy beings  holy legislator  ultimate holy beings
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