明治时期西村茂树“公德论”之建树
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引用本文:史 少 博.明治时期西村茂树“公德论”之建树[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2020,(4):115-121
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史 少 博 (西安电子科技大学 人文学院,陕西 西安 710126) 
中文摘要:西村茂树在推动日本道德运动的发展过程中,非常重视日本国民“公德”状况的改观,提出了关于日本近代“公德”建设的独特见解。西村茂树对“公德心”之培养的论述,不是按照常用的理论推导,也不是高谈阔论,而是结合明治初期日本“公德”的状况,将“公德”分为“消极公德”与“积极公德”,列举出现实社会中“公德”方面存在的问题与弊端,称之为“消极公德”;在此基础上,又列举了理想的、积极的、高水平的社会“公德”应该有的状态,称之为“积极公德”,这为人们的“公德”行为设定了理想的目标。西村茂树“公德论”的理论贡献是:“公德论”勾勒了关于高水平社会“公德”的国民思想像,描绘了社会“公德”的理想状态,为社会“公德”建设指明了方向;“公德”建设强调“借政府的力量是必要的”,对政府推动“公德”快速提升给予了很大的影响。当时作为日本弘道会的会长的西村茂树将“道德论”与弘道会结合,使弘道会成员以身作则,做“公德”的示范,然后向民众阐述,从而推动了社会“公德”迅速发展。
中文关键词:西村茂树  公德  建树
 
Shimura Shigaki in Meiji Period on the Contribution of  Public Morality
Abstract:In the process of promoting the development of Japanese moral movement, Shimura Shigaki attached great importance to the improvement of the  public morality  of Japanese people and put forward his unique views on the construction of the  public morality  in Modern Japan. Shimura Shigaki's discussion on the cultivation of  public morality  is not based on the commonly used theoretical derivation, nor is it a high-profile discussion, but combining with the situation of  public morality  in Japan in the early Meiji period, he divides  public morality  into  negative public morality  and  positive public morality,  and lists the existing problems and disadvantages in  public morality  in the real society, which is called  negative public morality;  on this basis, he also lists the ideal, positive and high-level social public morality should have a state called  positive public morality,  which sets an ideal goal for people's public morality behavior. Shimura shigaki's theoretical contribution of  public morality theory  is that public morality theory outlines the national ideological image of high-level social  public morality,  describes the ideal state of social public morality, and points out the direction for the construction of  social public morality;  the construction of public morality emphasizes that it is necessary to borrow the power of the government, which has a great impact on the government's promotion of  public morality;  at that time,Shimura Shigaki, President of the  Hong Dao Association,  combined moral theory with  the Hong Dao Association,  so that members of the Hong Dao Association set an example, he demonstrated  public morality  and then explained it to the public, thus promoting the rapid development of social  public morality.
keywords:Shimura shigaki  public morality  contribution
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