化民成俗:明清书院与圣谕宣讲
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引用本文:邓洪波,周文焰.化民成俗:明清书院与圣谕宣讲[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2020,(5):23-28
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作者单位
邓洪波,周文焰 (湖南大学 岳麓书院湖南 长沙 410082) 
中文摘要:明清时期,圣谕宣讲是基层教化的核心内容之一,形成了一套完整的宣讲体系。书院圣谕宣讲分书院内部和书院之外的两个层面。书院内部的传播形式主要以手抄、背诵、研习、讲会等形式展开。书院之外,社会层面,书院内外圣谕宣讲并不避讳民众的参入,一些书院甚至聘专人向普通民众宣讲圣谕,并且这种传播不仅仅在于宣讲,更多地在于把以圣谕为核心的儒家正统观念范导于整个社会。宗族层面,宗族书院也多把圣谕写进族谱,对族人普及、宣传。以书院为核心,书院内外的圣谕宣讲具有普及性与通俗性结合,层次性和针对性统一,形式上具有多样性,场合上具有灵活性等特点。以书院为核心的圣谕宣讲使书院与地方社会和宗族保持高度互动,甚至在一定程度上使书院成为传播儒家思想文化的中心。儒家的纲常伦理规范通过圣谕宣讲以及士人引领示范、民众的参入,渗透到整个社会,成为社会整合与社会控制的坚实力量。
中文关键词:书院  圣谕宣讲  教化
 
Transforming the People into the Common: The Academies of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the Oracles Preaching
Abstract:During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the oracle preaching was one of the core content of grassroots education, forming a complete set of preaching system. The oracle of the academy is divided into two levels: inside and outside the academy. The form of communication within the academy is mainly in the form of hand copying, recitation, study, lectures and other forms. Outside the academy, on the social level, preaching the oracles inside and outside the academy does not avoid the participation of the common people, and even some academies hire special personnel to preach the oracles to the general public, and this spread is not just about preaching, but more about Confucianism with the oracle as the core Orthodox ideas guided throughout society. At the clan level, often clan academies also write sacred oracles in their genealogy to popularize and promote the clan. Taking the academy as the core, the oracles inside and outside the academy have the combination of universality and popularity, the unity of hierarchy and pertinence, the diversity in form and the flexibility on the occasion. The sacred oracle preaching with the academy as the core keeps the academy highly interactive with local society and clan, and even makes the academy a center for spreading Confucian ideology and culture to a certain extent. The Confucian ethics and norms of the Confucianism through the proclamation of the oracle and the demonstration of the guidance of scholars, the participation of the public, penetrated into the entire society, and became a strong force for social integration and social control.
keywords:academy  oracle preaching  education
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