民法典对侵害具有人身意义的特定物精神损害赔偿规则的完善
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引用本文:杨 立 新.民法典对侵害具有人身意义的特定物精神损害赔偿规则的完善[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2020,(5):111-118
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杨 立 新 (中国人民大学 民商事法律科学研究中心北京 100872) 
中文摘要:《民法典》第1183条第2款规定侵害具有人身意义的特定物精神损害赔偿责任的规则,是在《最高人民法院关于确定民事侵权精神损害赔偿责任若干问题的解释》第4条的基础上,总结经验,进行理论概括形成的,具有充分的实践基础和丰富的理论依据,对于保护自然人的人身权益具有重要价值。构成该种精神损害赔偿责任,须具备故意或者重大过失的主观要件,侵害的客体是具有人格意义或者身份意义的特定物,损害后果是造成受害人的严重精神损害。确定精神损害赔偿责任的具体数额,应当由法官依据实际情况裁量。
中文关键词:民法典  具有人身意义的特定物  精神损害赔偿  规则  完善
 
Improvement of Mental Damage Compensation Rules of Infringement on Specific Objects with Personal Significance in Civil Code
Abstract:Article 1183, Paragraph 2 of the Civil Code stipulates the rules of liability for mental damage compensation to infringement on specific objects of personal significance. On the basis of Article 4 of the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Determination of Liability for Compensation for Spiritual Damages in Civil Infringement, through a summary of experience and a theoretical summary, this clause has been formed, which has a sufficient practical basis and a rich theoretical basis, and is of great value in protecting the personal rights and interests of natural persons. To constitute this kind of compensation for mental damage, subjective elements of intentional or gross negligence must be provided. The object of infringement is a specific object with personality or identity, and the consequence of the damage is a serious mental damage to the victim. The specific amount of the compensation for mental damages shall be determined by the judge based on the actual situation.
keywords:Civil Code  specific objects with personal significance  mental damage compensation  rules  improvement
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