中国共产党百年农村土地政策制度改革研究
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引用本文:郑品芳,李佑新.中国共产党百年农村土地政策制度改革研究[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2021,(2):9-16
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作者单位
郑品芳,李佑新 (湘潭大学 马克思学院湖南 湘潭 411105) 
中文摘要:中国共产党自成立以来,以毛泽东、邓小平、习近平为代表的中国共产党领导人,在不同时期提出了“平均分配土地”“土地集体公有”“分田包干”“三权分置”等农村土地思想,推动了农村土地制度改革和不断完善,是运用马克思主义土地理论解决中国农村土地问题的重大理论创新,具有以保障农民权益为目标、以继承和发展为动力、以建立和坚持农村土地公有制生产关系为原则三大特点。毛泽东农村土地思想破解了中国自春秋战国以来因土地兼并而导致土地过度集中的难题;邓小平“分田包干”土地思想解决了生产队时期存在的激励机制和监督机制不足两大问题,充分调动了农民的生产积极性;习近平“三权分置”土地思想破解了小农经济困境,推动了规模农业经济发展。
中文关键词:中国共产党  农村土地思想  土地制度改革
 
Research On China’s Rural Land Policy and System Reform Led by the Communist Party of China since its Founding in 1921
Abstract:Since the founding of the Communist Party of China, the leadership of the party,led respectively by Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping and Xi Jinping had been working on rural land reform, their thoughts, such as equal distribution of land, public ownership of land, assignment of land by contract to each rural household, and separating ownership rights, contract rights and the rights to use contracted rural land, that constantly improved the rural land system reform, are important theoretical innovation which had solved practical problems by land theory of Marxism. They have three characteristics, firstly,they aim to guarantee the basic rights of farmers, secondly,they are motivated by inheriting the good from the past and creating what is needed at the present, and lastly,they keep the principles of public ownership of rural land and improve the relations of production based on it. Mao Zedong’s thoughts on rural land had eventually resolved the difficult problem that rural land will be always owned privately by landlords through the process of annexation. Deng Xiaoping’s thoughts solved the detailed problems on the relations of production, namely motivation mechanism and supervision mechanism in production team period, and made the farmers work in a much more active manner. Xi Jinping’s thought of separating the three rights, has helped farmers live out from attached responsibility of farming and work out from small-scale peasant economy, which leads to a scale production in rural land.
keywords:the Communist Party of China  thought on rural land  land system reform
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