亲缘选择能否印证《孟子》之四端说
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引用本文:朱汉民,[澳大利亚]马兆仁.亲缘选择能否印证《孟子》之四端说[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2021,(3):17-23
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作者单位
朱汉民,[澳大利亚]马兆仁 (湖南大学 岳麓书院,湖南 长沙 410082) 
中文摘要:亲缘选择是一条影响深远的自然法则,也是当代伦理学不得不面对的重要课题。中外学界对亲缘选择与孟子学说的关联均有所关注,也有学者认为亲缘选择能为孟子学说提供强有力的支持。四端说是孟子伦理学体系的核心,故此可设如下的议题:亲缘选择能否印证《孟子》之四端说?根据《孟子》四端说的文本以及历代解读的分析,所得结论是:亲缘选择不止对四端说起不到印证作用,而更迫使当代诠释者对于许多四端说的解读,降低其置信度。与亲缘选择相符的四端说解读,应该重视文化的熏陶作用,应该承认四端为人禽共有,也不该将四端设为纯粹形上对象。亲缘选择对孟子学说的印证效能,需在四端说之外去寻找。
中文关键词:四端说  亲缘选择  仁义  孝悌
 
Is Kin Selection Confirmatory of the Mencian "Four Sprout" Idea?
Abstract:Kin selection is a profound biological principle, the far-reaching implications of which constitute an important topic faced by contemporary ethicists. Chinese and non-Chinese scholars alike have directed attention to the link between kin selection and Mencian thought, Indeed, there are scholars of both Chinese and non-Chinese who take kin selection to provide strong confirmation of Mencian thought. Given that the "four sprouts" idea is central to Mencian ethics, the following question can be posed: is kin selection confirmatory of the Mencius' idea of the "four sprouts"? Based on our analysis of both the textual grounding of the "four sprouts" idea in the Mencius as well as that of exegeses made in later periods, we conclude that the answer to this question is a qualified "no": kin selection not only fails to be positively confirmatory of the "four sprouts" idea, but rather necessitates contemporary interpreters of the Mencius to down-weight the credences that we assign to many of the various historical readings of the "four sprouts" idea. Such readings, if they are to be compatible with kin selection: will need to place due emphasis on the effects of culture; will need to admit that the "four sprouts" are common to some species other than just humans; and must not take the "four sprouts" to be purely metaphysical. If we are to take kin selection as confirmatory of Mencian thought, we must search for such confirmation somewhere other than in the "four sprouts" idea.
keywords:"four sprouts"  kin selection  Mencius  ren  filial piety
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