“利己主义者”的自由为何是虚幻的?——论马克思对施蒂纳自由观的批判与超越
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引用本文:柯 萌.“利己主义者”的自由为何是虚幻的?——论马克思对施蒂纳自由观的批判与超越[J].湖南大学学报社会科学版,2023,(3):112-118
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作者单位
柯 萌 (同济大学 马克思主义学院上海 200092) 
中文摘要:施蒂纳对自由主义的抽象的“人”的批判和对现实个体的关注,无形中促进了马克思告别人本主义哲学,深入反思自由的主体,即现实的个人是怎样的。马克思发现,施蒂纳眼中现实的个人——利己主义的“唯一者”依然是具有抽象本质的、脱离现实条件的“人”,其设想的“利己主义者的联盟”不可能实现真正的自由。唯物史观的发现让马克思认识到,现实的个人必须从事物质生产,并在其中结成了具体的历史的社会关系,人的自由程度取决于生产力和社会关系的发展状况。只有在生产力高度发达的基础上开展无产阶级革命,消灭私有制,改变不合理的社会关系,构建个体与社会相统一的自由人的联合体,才能最终实现人的解放。
中文关键词:自由  利己主义  历史唯物主义  自由人的联合体
 
Why is the Freedom of Egoists Illusory?—On Marx’s Criticism and Transcendence of Stirner's View of Freedom
Abstract:Stirner's criticism of Person in Abstract of liberalism and his attention to Person in Reality virtually promoted Marx to surpass humanistic philosophy and deeply reflect on the subject of freedom—the Person in Reality . Marx found that the Person in Reality in Stirner's mind— The Ego was still abstract and divorced from the real conditions; therefore, the alliance of egoists he envisioned could not achieve real freedom. After the discovery of historical materialism, Marx realized that the Person in Reality must engage in material production and form a historical social relations in it, how much freedom people can obtain depends on the situation of productivity and social relations. Only by carrying out the proletarian revolution on the basis of highly developed productivity, which aims to eliminate private ownership, break unreasonable social relations, and build a community of free individuals with the unity of individual and society, can people's liberation be finally realized.
keywords:freedom  egoism  historical materialism  community of free individuals
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